Plumbing fixtures are devices that are connected to any plumbing system and experience interaction with water whether if it is related to drainage or delivering. Plumbing fixtures are not limited to faucets. They have been around us for years, and they have been developing with the course of time. Bathtubs, sinks, toilets and showers have come a long way in development.

People mistake faucets for plumbing fixtures all the time. Any device that is connected to a plumbing system and interacts with water whether if it is performing the processing of drainage or delivering can be called a plumbing fixture. Each plumbing fixture is designed for a particular use, and while the basic concept of the fixture will remain the same, the use and the design may vary from one and other depending on the use of the device, i.e. if it is for practical use or if it is ornamental. These are usually manufactured to serve one purpose or function. Some of the most common plumbing fixtures that we get to see on a daily basis are as follows:

• Bathtubs:

BATHTUB preview
Bathtubs are like huge containers that can be filled with water allowing a person to bathe while submerged in water. High-end bathtubs that are more on the expensive side are usually made from cast iron, enamel, steel and from rich waterproof wood whereas more affordable ones are made from fibreglass and acrylic. Bathtubs are commonly found in bathrooms with a shower attachment, giving a current batch more versatility. Bathtubs have been around us for a very long period. Most modern baths are equipped with taps, also known as faucets, and drains that play an essential role in the drainage and delivery of water.

Back in the old days, water was heated on stoves, but now hot water is supplied through pipes and is directly available in faucets. Western-style bathtubs are one of the most commonly used bathtubs, they are meant to be attached to the walls of the bathroom, and cabinets usually cover the plumbing. The tubs are long and reasonably thin allowing the bather to submerge fully. Another bathtub that is trending nowadays is known as a whirlpool tub.

These come pre-installed in many new homes nowadays. These tubs are designed for two people, and nozzles are incorporated which function to force the air or water out in such a way that it provides a relaxing massage. Claw-foot tubs have been around for centuries, they were considered as a luxury item back in the 19th century. They are made up of cast iron, the modern version of these tubs are made of advanced materials such as acrylic, it makes them comparatively less expensive. They held more water than a standard tub and they and made to stand alone without any need for a cabinet.

• Sinks:

SINK preview
It is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture which is mainly used for washing hands, dishes and other small objects. They are also known as a basin. Sinks are usually attached with a couple of faucets, one for hot water and one for cold water. They are equipped with drains and sometimes integrated soap dispenser too. They are usually accessorised with a spray that allows the stream of water to be stronger than before. Sinks do get often clogged, and it can be easily unclogged by anyone although there are some special cases where a professional is needed.

There are many types of sinks with the self-rimming sicks being the most common ones. They are often used in kitchens and are made to adjust on a hole. They are suspended by the rim, and the seal between the sink and the countertop is watertight if installed correctly. Solid surface sinks, on the other hand, are made with the same material as the countertop and is glued underneath providing a seamless connection. They are usually manufactured in stainless steel. Bottom-mount sinks are clamped underneath the countertop. The hole must have a finished edge. In such sinks, keeping the seal completely waterproof is comparatively difficult. They are way more expensive, but their appearance is considered to be contemporary and classy.

• Toilets:

It is an essential plumbing fixture. The modern toilet is developed to have a flush system that discards the wastes into a septic tank or community sewerage system. Toilets have complex systems and are one of the most complex plumbing fixtures. Proper installation is needed to ensure the appropriate flow of water. Flush toilets have been around for quite some time. Flush toilets are designed to reduce the wastage of water.

They are the most common toilets and can be found everywhere. High-tech toilets, on the other hand, are of course very expensive but they provide a much better experience. They are auto flushing, auto-cleaning and sometimes are even equipped with a waterjet that can clean the bits of the person. Some toilets are also able to check the body temperature and the blood pressure of the person.

• Showers:

Showers have remained unchanged since the late 19th century. It is a simple plumbing fixture which is used to release a stream of water over the person. There are always innovative and new designs on the market, but the basic concept remains. Different nozzles are used to alter or change the appearance of the stream. Water shower is found in every household where the water pressure of the house is applied to propel the water. Electric shower, on the other hand, uses an on-demand heating system and can provide an instant hot shower. Some of the more expensive ones can also increase the pressure of the



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